Zone (network), area (network), name (on the network) eg. www.ph4.ru
Domains are the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and so on. Levels.
For example, logo.ph4.org
- en - first-level domain, first-level domains are also called zones.
For example, all domains of any level in the geographic area .RU refer to Russia.
- ph4 - second-level domain, this is called a domain name or simply a domain, this is the address that we buy.
- domain - third-level domain or subdomain, we have them free if there is a second-level domain name.
Domain Level 1
- National Domains (ccTLDs) - Top-level National Domains are delegated to the appropriate national registrars,
Which establish the rules for registration in them either themselves, or according to the instructions of the government.
They are also called territorial (en, ua, de, us ...), which refer to the country.
Such a domain can be registered only by a resident of the country. Some countries allowed the registration of foreigners or even sold their domain zone.
list of all national domains.
- International Domains (gTLDs) - The so-called top-level common or international domains are managed by ICANN.
They are also called extraterritorial (com, org, net ...), which are not tied to a specific country.
Such domains can be closed (narrowly focused, ex. .GOV - for government websites USA) and public - for public use.
list of all international domains.
- Reserved Domain Names - RFC 2606 document (Reserved Top Level DNS Names)
Defines the domain names that should be used as examples (for example, in the documentation), and for testing.
In addition to example.com, example.org and example.net, this group also includes .test, .invalid, etc.
In Russia there is a list of reserved domains in the .RU, ex zone. .ORG.RU .COM.RU .GOV.RU and geographical ex. .MSK.RU .SPB.RU .BAIKAL.RU
list of reserved RF domains.
National and International domains are also divided into closed and open domains:
- Open - available to everyone. Such are a number of international domains, for example .COM. NET .ORG .INFO .BIZ .NAME, as well as a number of countries allowed foreigners to register on their territorial domain. The reason is additional earnings. And another reason. For example, India has opened its domain for foreigners (better zone). English good names they have already taken, the Indian we are not interested, they are not interested in the Russians. In addition, it opens the possibility for foreign business to participate in the economy of India. In addition, they sell for expensive, which means that they will only buy the one who really needs it.
- Closed. National Domains were originally intended for registration within their own country. Different countries have different requirements for this.
We do not need a photocopy of the passport (however, it can and will be required) or notarized papers, but the information will be checked.
International domains of narrow focus, which were not open to all comers, for example, the zone. GOV - the government USA, the zone .EDU - educational.
Buy a domain
Now you can buy a domain zone of the 1st level. And before the length of the name was no more than 5 characters, now up to 22.
Acceptance of applications for new top-level domains will begin on January 12, 2012 AD, And by April a list of applicants should be compiled.
It is expected that there will be domains of the 1st level (domain zones) .MOSCOW, .GOOGLE, .APPLE
The application for a new domain alone will cost the company $185,000. In addition, experts will have to hire that would ensure the passage of a complicated procedure related to the receipt of the domain and its further maintenance. The domain owner will have to pay ICANN $25,000 annually, and other costs, including payments to lawyers and consultants, will be inevitable. The total cost of domain ownership will be at least $500,000, even if there are no other applicants for this domain, experts at the Financial Times estimated. And in the case of litigation with cybersquatters, especially in the US, this amount may increase by 3-4 times.