Grain measures

Christianity / Teachings / Metrology

Grain measures

Calculator measures

kor (6), homer (5) 10 ephahs 400 l (180 kg)
EPHAH (64) 10 omers 40 l (18 kg)
sata (2) 6 cab 13,3 l (6 kg)
omer (6) 1/10 ephah 4 l (1,8 kg)
cab (1) 24 eggs 2,2 l (1 kg)
modia (1) 16 sextarium 8,74 l
hinix (1) 2 sextariums 1,1 l (450 g)
sextarium 2 cotoule 0,55 l
cotoule 0,27 l
* Red color indicates approximately how many times this word is used in the Bible.



donkey load

חומר homer - material, clay; Heap. 400 l ~180 kg

The basis of measures of loose and liquid is the homer, although it is not a measure for liquids. The biggest measure for liquids - baht - is 10 times smaller than the homer. It looks rather strange that the standard is taken not the smallest measure (as, for example, a ger - a grain), but the largest. A cumbersome measure is more difficult to determine the exact measure. It's just that God allowed people to have flexibility.
We divide the system of measures into two components: the measure of the goods sold and the measure of silver for the payment of this commodity. Today, the system of measures and weights of goods is very precise. Money, with which we value this product, is not tied to anything. We experienced the inflation of the ruble's fall more than 1000 times. God did the opposite, He preferred some flexibility to leave the goods, and unshakable to make a financial system to protect against inflation. God's system is wiser and far-sighted. It resembles a spring, which has only a slight flexibility and this makes it the most reliable part of the machine. It does not bend under any pressure and does not crack at every sharp jerk.

Num 11:32 And the people arose, and all that day, and all night, and all the next day, they gathered quails; And who collected a little, he gathered 10 homers..

10 homers=1800 kg=10 donkey load, a person could bring it for 70 (!) Times.
The number 10 means a lot. In this case, when we understand the numbers, they speak for themselves.

Hos 31:2 And I bought it myself for 15 silversmiths and for 1.5 homer of barley.

1.5 homer - somewhere 270 kg of barley or 5.5 bags (50 kg each).


כר kor - kor, (fat sheep, saddle). 400 l ~180 kg

1Kin 4:2 The daily food of Solomon was: 30 cows of wheat flour,   5.4 tons

Only about 16 tons of flour per day. This is how much people need to eat all this? Now for us it is somehow clear what bureaucratic system Solomon developed and why the people wanted to reduce taxes.
At a rate of 450 grams of flour per day per person, 30 cows will feed 12,000.


סאה sea - bread measure. 13.3 l ~6 kg

Gen 18:1-8(6) 3 sachets of the best flour (that is, 18 kg of fine flour)

I was surprised by some things of that year. The salary for the day was drachma, for which the family could live 3 days, and at the same time the tetrahedrach (4 drachmas) was the most popular coin. The family could live for 12 days. This indicates a different lifestyle. Today, we are overstocked for about a month, and then we buy something from small things: bread, chocolate, chewing gum ... In those days there were no such trifles, and everything was bought mostly in bulk. Because in the course there were more large sums and bigger measures (ephah, sata).

1Sam 25:18 Then Abigail took: 200 (!) Loaves, and 2 furs with wine, and 5 sheep cooked, and 5 measures (in the original "sat"), and 100 (!) Bundles of raisins, and 200 sheaves of figs, and loaded on donkeys.

Here we are talking either about a large number (100, 200), or about large things (fur of wine, sheep). Sata was a major measure.
In other words, Sata is not small, but a large measure and it is measured not in the kitchen, but on a wholesale base. Abraham, on the other hand, ordered to measure flour not with glasses, but with buckets (satami).


day's rations of manna in the desert

עמר omer - omer, sheaf. 4 l ~1.8 kg

Exo 16:36 And the omer is the tenth part of the ephah.(1/3 satas).
Exo 16:18 And they measured with omer...

In the desert people used only manna and consumed it on the omer per day. Sata was enough for three. But a man eats not only bread. For example, the daily ration of the Roman army was 850 g of wheat, lard and salt, sometimes meat and vegetables.

So, what did Abraham attend to? If he gave them only bread, then they would have sat and quite enough. Abraham gave them three. In addition, he served oil, milk and calf on the table. The hungriest three people and one day would not eat all this. In other words, "the table was bursting with food." And there was something to give them on the road.

The fact is that, like them, Abraham himself was an alien in this land, like them. But the Canaanite land met him with hunger, and he was forced to seek shelter in a neighboring country. Abraham knew what it meant to be in the shoes of these people. And now he was pleased to give them what he dreamed of at that time.

Mt 13:33 The woman kneaded 3 measures of flour (in the original "satya")

1 sat is the amount of flour for a family for a week. 3 sati is about 18 kg. Where do they knead so much? The usual dishes are too small for this, someone uses a trough for such matters. That is, in the parable it is said about the maximum possible to present for the hostess the amount of flour, and about the leaven, a negligible amount of the same test, only sank.
That is, let Monchegorsk be large, but few burning believers are able to do so that "everything is leavened".
ζυμη - sour, from ζεω - boil.


smallest measure of loose products

קב Kav - crutch, trans. small measure (like our mite). 2.2 l ~1 kg

The smallest measure of loose tel. If measured kaba, then a hungry year. Today the Jews say "cab", mean a negligible measure. Something like how we use the word "lept". The Bible is found only once.

2Kin 6:25 donkey head for 80 shekels, 1/4 cabbage (250 g) pigeon litter - 5 shekels.

The litter was fuel. And when do we measure firewood by the smallest measure?

2Kin 7:1 sata (6 kg) of the best flour - 1 sheqel, 2 sets (12 kg) of barley - 1 shekel.

Only knowing the measure of weight can understand the difference.


Measure of Egyptian origin

Measure of Egyptian origin 40 l ~18 kg

The usual measure in the market is ephah (3 satats or 18 kg) to not walk 2 times.

Deu 25:13-15 You must have accurate and correct weight, and ephah must be exact and correct. The most common measure on the market was ephah (3 satats or 18 kg), "so that you do not walk 2 times".

Pr 20:10 Unequal scales, unequal measure (in the original "ephah"), then another abomination before the Lord.

Mic 6:10 ... and the reduced measure (in the original "ephah") is disgusting?

Why did they try to make an ephah smaller? After all, this measure is given.

But Jesus taught us to give a full measure, settled, overflowing.


Measure of Egyptian origin

הין gin - measure of liquids. 6.65 l 1/6 bath

Lev 19:36 Yes you will have a correct balance, a kettlebell of faith, an ephah faithful and gin true.

Efah measured the bread, wine and fir wine.

Lev 23:13 gin of wine
Exo 29:40 1/4 gin of oil



pound 3046 λιτρα - pound, lat. libra - scales. 325.5 g 12 ounce

Jh 19:39 Nicodemus ... brought a composition of myrrh and aloe, a liter of about a hundred.
It was about 33 kg.
Jh 12:3 Mary, having taken a pound of the backgammon pure and precious world, anointed the feet of Jesus and waved her feet with her hair; And the house was filled with fragrance.
No wonder, 1/3 liter of perfume (!).


Bread measure

3426 μοδιοω - Modia. 8,74 l 1/3 amphorae

It occurs in the Bible in only one parable(Mt 5:15, Mk 4:21, Lk 11:33).

Mt 5:15 And lighting a candle, do not put it under the VESSEL (in the original "modii"), but on a candlestick, and shines all in the house.
In Russian it will be like: And lighting a candle, do not put it under the BUCKET.


daily ration

5518 χοινιξ - shackles. 1.09 l ~450 g

Rev 6:5-6 And when he took the third seal, I heard the 3rd animal saying: go and see. I looked, and, behold, a black horse, and on it a rider who has ME in his hand. And I heard a voice in the midst of 4 animals, saying: HINIX wheat for a denarius, and 3 HINIX of barley for a denarius;

2218 ζυγος Measure - beam of weights, yoke [from harnessing, tying].

Unlike the story of the 4-th Kingdom, there is not too much high price, but what we call "from paycheck to paycheck." Denarius is the payment for the day of work, and the hinix is the norm for the day of bread, and for one person, not for the family. This situation can continue for as long as desired, that is, "shackles." "From salary to salary" and "every man for himself."


Romans army ration

850 g wheat, lard and salt, sometimes meat and vegetables.