Graphic expansion

Graphics / Graphic arts / Color and format

Graphic expansion

Raster graphics

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)
The GIF format was developed in 1987 by the computer information service CompuServe.

Benefits

  1. Small size, which is achieved by a limited color gamut - no more than 256 colors.
  2. Transparent background.
  3. Animation.
And one more important factor, that the compression algorithm of LZW format GIF is patented. The owner of the patent since 1994 is Unisys, and she began to charge a fee for developers using the GIF format.
PNG (Portable Network Graphics)
The fruit of the community of independent programmers is the response to the transition of the most popular GIF format to commercial products. The PNG format does almost everything that the GIF format does, except for animation.

Benefits

  1. The best data compression - compresses raster images not only horizontally, but also vertically.
  2. Supports color photographic images up to 48-bit inclusive.
  3. 256 levels of transparency.
The size of the PNG image will be smaller than that of the GIF. But the smallest trivialities will be easier for GIF, because in the image file PNG about 1 Kb takes a description of the color palette, which sometimes can be compared with the size of the image itself.
PNG-24
A format similar to PNG-8, but using a 24-bit color palette.
That allows you to save photos and complex pictures in this format.

Benefits

  1. Full color palette.
  2. High-quality transparency allows you to superimpose a drawing on any background.
GIF and normal PNG are cut at the edges and therefore the transparency is suitable for a specific background - light.
JPG, JPEG, JFIF (JPEG File Interchange Format)
To find the best way to compress images of photographic quality, two standardization organizations - the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and the International Organization for Standartization (ISO) - created the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG).
Uses compression with "lossy compression". With such compression, the information that is unimportant for image perception is deleted.
WBMP (WAP BitMap)
Monochrome (two-color) images.
The maximum size of the picture should not exceed the limits on the size of the map - 1.5 KB.
BMP (BitMap)
The simplest raster BMP format is the native Windows format. In BMP, color data is stored only in the RGB model, that is, this format is created for use on the screen.
PCX (PCExchange)
Images in PCX format can be viewed by most programs under DOS. Like BMP, this format is largely outdated and supported by modern graphics programs only for compatibility with antiquarian software.
TIFF, TIF (Tagged Image File Format)
Originally developed by Aldus for its photo editor PhotoStyler. As a universal format for storing raster images, TIFF is widely used, primarily in publishing systems that require images of the best quality.
Due to its compatibility with most professional image processing software, the TIFF format is very useful when transferring images between different types of computers (for example, from PC to Mac and back).
PSD (Photoshop)
The Adobe Photoshop format is distinguished by the ability to store layers. It is convenient only for processing in Photoshop and for storing the source for editing in the future.
RAW (RAW Image Data)
The format is designed for digital cameras. This exact copy of the picture captured on the matrix during the shooting is three photos taken in red, blue and green colors.
RAW file extensions for different manufacturers may differ, and they are not always open with the help of image processing programs.
Although if the camera supports the preservation of RAW, then, as a rule, it comes bundled with some software for processing files of this format.
Currently Adobe Corporation has proposed the format DNG (Digital Negative Specification), which is created in order to make life easier for producers of tools for working with graphics. Some companies (Leica and Pentax) have already incorporated DNG into their cameras, but most camera vendors still use their formats.
RAW format extensions
     .dng - Adobe (universal)
     .crw .cr2 - Canon
     .raf - Fuji
     .kdc - Kodak
     .mrw - Minolta
     .nef - Nikon
     .orf - Olympus
     .ptx .pef - Pentax
     .x3f - Sigma
     .arw - Sony

Vector graphics

CDR (CorelDRAW)
The format of the popular CorelDRAW, which is the undisputed leader in the class of vector graphics editors on the PC platform. Having a relatively low stability and problems with the compatibility of files of different versions of the format.
AI (Adobe Illustrator)
As part of the Adobe family, they support almost all programs that are somehow related to vector graphics. The best intermediary when transferring images from one program to another, from PC to Macintosh and vice versa. It has the greatest stability and compatibility with the PostScript language, which is used by almost all publishing and printing applications.
WMF (Windows Metafile)
Another native Windows format, this time vector. It is understood by almost all Windows programs, one way or another related to vector graphics.
EMF (Enhaced Metafile)
Like WMF.

OTHER FORMATS

SWF (ShokWaveFlash)
Flash format, the product of the company "Macromedia", which allows to develop interactive multimedia applications. The scope of use of Flash is different, it can be games, websites, CD presentations, banners and just cartoons. When creating a product, you can use media, audio and graphic files, you can create interactive interfaces and full-fledged web applications using PHP and XML.
SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics)
The standard recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium for describing two-dimensional vector and combined vector-raster graphics with XML markup.
In the browser, SVG graphics are rendered using raster mechanisms. Support for translucencies in each layer, linear gradients, radial gradients, visual effects (shadows, washings, shiny surfaces, textures, patterns of any design, symbols of any complexity).
SVG is a format for two-dimensional vector graphics - as defined in the specification, but with the addition of a script (namely JavaScript), you can create 3D animated images inside the SVG file.
In SVG, a bitmap image can be embedded, to which, like to any other object in SVG, transformation, transparency, etc. can be applied.
ICO (Icon)
Icons are used in any programs to computer, a smartphone. But an ordinary person, as a rule, may need to create or use an icon on his website.
Many people try to start a website. Even if you are using a ready-made site template with a style that you just need to fill, you should still make a unique icon.

The icon on the Internet is used as a website symbol, logo. For example, now you see a red box in the address bar. If you add a page of our site to your favorites (favorit), next to our link will appear our icon, which will help quickly visually find the link to the site. Actually, this is the main purpose of the icon on the Internet.


PostScript

EPS (Encapsulated PostScript)
The most reliable and universal way to save data. It uses a simplified version of PostScript that can not contain more than one page in one file, does not save a number of settings for the printer. As in PostScript print files, the final version of the work is recorded in EPS, although programs such as Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Photoshop can use it as a working one. EPS is designed to transfer vectors and raster to publishing systems, created by almost all programs that work with graphics.

WHICH FORMAT TO CHOOSE?

For of Internet
  Picture or picture with flowing tones JPG
  A picture with straight lines,
  small color scale,
  with smooth fill (without a gradient)
GIF
PNG
  Complex picture with transparent background PNG-24
  animation SWF
  icons ICO
For printing and storage
  For printing TIFF
  For storage PSD
  For logo EPS (CDR AI)
  Logo for MS Office WMF
For photos
  For storing and printing photos, only not of poor quality JPEG
  For the printing house and for the original of the best quality RAW

Of course the best storage format for example. The logos are EPS. Which supports a vector and is equally suitable for both vector and raster editors.