Christianity / Israel / Yerushalayim


I Crusades


Declared by Pope Urban II, in order to defuse the warlike energy of the feudal lords.
But the knights outstripped the foot militia under the leadership of Peter the Hermit, which was almost completely interred by the Turks.
In the autumn of 1096 AD The leaders of the campaign arrived: Gottfried Bouillon - Duke of Lorraine (subsequently the first king of Jerusalem), his brother Baldwin, Boehmund of Tarentum, Raymond VIII, Count of Toulouse, Robert Kurtgez - Duke of Normandy, etc. In the spring of 1097 AD The knights moved from Constantinople to the depths of Asia Minor, seized Antioch (making it the capital of the Antiochian principality) and in 1099 AD Took the assault of Jerusalem, freeing Christian relics from the power of the Turks.

II Crusades


Announced by Bernard Clairvos, after in the face of the crusading threat of disparate Muslim principalities united and went into a counteroffensive.
The leaders of the campaign of Louis VII French and Conrad III of Germany did not have success and did not even reach Jerusalem.

III Crusades


The most significant in terms of the number of participants, but also unsuccessful.
Friedrich Barbarossa died at the very beginning, and the German knights returned.
Richard I Lionheart quarreled with Philip Augustus and Leopold of Austria, heroically but unsuccessfully besieged Jerusalem and on the way back was captured by Leopold, who betrayed him to the hostile Henry VI of Germany.

IV Crusades


The last of the major campaigns. The Knights had no money to attack Jerusalem from the sea, and agreed to first conquer the city of Zadar for Venice, and then restore to the Byzantine throne of Isaac II the Angel, overthrown by his brother.
The son of Isaac Alexei joined the crusaders, promising to pay them a further trip.
In reality, of course, the crusaders did not receive any money and, outraged by the cunning of the Byzantines, plundered Constantinople.
he Byzantine Empire split into parts and a Latin empire was created on its wreckage.