Muslim calendar

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Muslim calendar

Hijri Calendar
(arab. الـتـقـويم الـهـجـري‎‎ — at-takvimu-l-Hijri)
The Muslim lunar calendar.
Perhaps because in Muslim countries there is not much difference between winter and summer and it is not very important when the year begins and when it ends, the calendar is not tied to a solar year.
Historically, in these parts, the moon was worshiped And deified her. The moon shines at night, unlike the sun, which shines in the daytime, when it's so light.
It's no accident that the calendar has become purely lunar. 1 month = 1 phase of the moon. Thus, the year is shorter than the solar year and throughout the life of a person, the day of birth falls on all seasons.

The year consists of 12 lunar months and contains about 354 days, which is 10 or 11 days less than a solar year.

Another feature is Friday's off. What in my opinion is not so significant difference, the main thing once a week.

Monthes

  1. Muḥarram مُحَرَّم— forbidden A sacred month, so called because battle and all kinds of fighting are forbidden (ḥarām) during this month. Muḥarram includes ‘Āshūrā’, the tenth day.
  2. Ṣafar صَفَر— void Supposedly named thus because pre-Islamic Arab houses were empty this time of year while their occupants gathered food. Another account relates that they used to loot the houses of their enemies after defeating them in battle, leaving nothing behind.
  3. Rabī‘ al-awwal رَبيع الأوّل— the first spring Also means to graze, because cattle were grazed during this month. Also a very holy month of celebration for many Muslims, as it was the month the Prophet Muhammad was born.[5]
  4. Rabī‘ ath-thānī رَبيع الثاني— the second spring
  5. Jumādá al-ūlá جُمادى الأولى— the first of parched land Often considered the pre-Islamic summer. Jumādá may also be related to a verb meaning "to freeze" and another account relates that water would freeze during this time of year.
  6. Jumādá al-ākhirah جُمادى الآخرة— the last of parched land
  7. Rajab رَجَب— respect, honour This is the second sacred month in which fighting is forbidden. Rajab may also be related to a verb meaning "to remove", so called because pre-Islamic Arabs would remove the heads of their spears and refrain from fighting.
  8. Sha‘bān شَعْبان— scattered Marked the time of year when Arab tribes dispersed to find water. Sha‘bān may also be related to a verb meaning "to be in between two things". Another account relates that it was called thus because the month lies between Rajab and Ramaḍān.
  9. Ramaḍān رَمَضان— burning heat Burning is related to fasting as in empty stomach one's worldly desire will burn. Supposedly so called because of high temperatures caused by the excessive heat of the sun. Ramaḍān is the most venerated month of the Hijri calendar. During this time, Muslims must fast from pre-dawn till sunset and should give charity to the poor and needy.
  10. Shawwāl شَوّال— raised She-camels would normally be in calf at this time of year and raise their tails.
  11. Dhū al-Qa‘dah ذو القعدة— the one of truce/sitting This is a holy month during which war is banned. People are allowed to defend themselves if attacked.
  12. Dhū al-Ḥijja ذو الحجة— the one of pilgrimage During this month Muslim pilgrims from all around the world congregate at Mecca to visit the Kaaba. The Hajj is performed on the eighth, ninth and the tenth of this month. Day of Arafah takes place on the ninth of the month. Eid al-Adha, the "Festival of the Sacrifice", begins on the tenth day and ends on sunset of the twelfth, and during which war is banned.
Russian
address: Belgium
Calendar for the year, the dates for the Muslim calendar are specified in parallel.
The holidays and important events are indicated.

So the calendar is simple and understandable.